Myopia in children is considered one of the most common pathological conditions of the visual system.
I must say that in 15-16 years of age the disease is found in 25-30% of children.Children myopia often detected before adolescence, in which the strengthening of her.
Myopia in year-old child and in children under one year whole essence of the disease is quite simple.In a healthy body of the projection of the image is carried out directly on the retina.If the length is increased or apple optic when light rays passing through the eye, refracted excessively misses image on the retina, but in front of it.The result is the apparent vagueness of the subject.
If the subject closer to his eyes, then being projected, as expected, the image on the retina is perceived clearly.The same thing happens when using negative lenses.
The disease most often develops between the ages of 7 to 13 years, when it becomes particularly large burden on the eyes.However, it is possible to detect the myopia in children medicalnn under one year.
This is called congenital myopia, to which tend to develop premature, as well as children of myopic parents.Such babies from the first months of life should be under the supervision of an ophthalmologist.Such myopia, usually stable, but still it must be identified and corrected as soon as possible to enable the eye to develop properly.In addition, it must be remembered that at the year-old child nearsightedness may worsen strabismus or amblyopia, and timely treatment of this can be prevented.
Myopia in children of preschool and school-age in preschool children nearsightedness almost always acquired, except in cases where at an early age was not revealed congenital form of the disease.It is not rare for children myopia goes unnoticed: the child often can not understand or does not want to notice that his eyesight drops, and parents often do not attach importance of regular health examinations, during which as time and can quickly identify the disease. have school-age children myopia presents one of the most common disorders of vision.And children who are just beginning to study the disease occurs only in 3% of cases, and by the time of graduation for as much as 25%.This sad fact doctors attributed to the growing load of visual: the students are forced to spend long hours for books and notebooks, and that's not counting phones, tablets, computers, etc.This affects not only predisposed to the disease due to hereditary factors, but also healthy children.
Myopia in children of school age among ophthalmologists are often called "school myopia". Myopia in children: progressive myopia in children
Described disease may be physiological as well as pathological (this option is also known as myopic disease) and so-called lenticular.
physiological myopia , occurring usually in the period of intensive growth, in turn, can be axial or refractive and typically does not lead to disability.Pathological option exists only in the form of axial and lenticular myopia, frequent in diabetes mellitus or cataract central - only refraction. to pathological forms characterized by relentless progression, with a short growing optic apple in length.This form often leads to disability.
By the nature of the development of myopia is also divided into two types: progressive myopia in children, in which the decrease in vision is permanent (sometimes even a few diopters for one year);and stationary, which they say when blurred vision, focusing on a particular indicator is not exacerbated.
In addition, there are three degrees of the disease: myopia low (weak) severity (in this case a violation of not more than 3 diopters), moderate myopia (in violation within 3-6 diopters) and a high degree of disease (more than 6 diopters).
False myopia in children and its treatment
Here it is worth mentioning about this state as false myopia in children.It appears it is usually in school children and is caused by excessive tension (spasm) accommodative muscles, which normally allows a clear distinction of subjects, regardless of the distance.When this muscle spasm is reduced (and mostly away) visual acuity.Plus, if a person reads or writes that he has a pain in the eyes, in the forehead and temples, and he quickly gets tired.
Unlike true false myopia treatment of myopia in children may lead to the full restoration of vision.
Causes of congenital myopia in children
Speaking about the causes of myopia in children is important to remember that this disease can be hereditary nature, can be purchased as well as can be congenital in nature.
Heredity is not tricky.It is quite understandable and logical is the fact that the predisposition to develop myopia in children whose parents (or even only one, and even worse, if both) also suffer from the said disease, significantly higher than those kids whose parents have healthy organsview.In such cases, children are usually diagnosed with a hereditary myopia.
Congenital myopia in children, is usually detected in the first year of life.there are prerequisites, lies in the weakness and increased distensibility of the sclera to this form of the disease.These factors contribute to the steady progression of the disease.
In addition, this version of myopia often diagnosed in premature babies and children with congenital abnormalities of the cornea or lens, suffering from a congenital form of elevated intraocular pressure, or born with Down syndrome, Marfan's, etc.
As for acquired forms of the disease, in this case causes myopia in children usually occur and progress to the extent of schooling.Doctors attributed the fact that it increases visual load in his school years.In addition, the occurrence of myopia associated with early learning reading and writing.Equally important is the failure to comply with hygiene, as well as the uncontrolled use of a computer and / or watching TV.The disease may develop because of the lack of food in trace elements and vitamins.Plus, can cause myopia child's rapid growth.
development of myopia in children may provoke spinal injuries during childbirth, is a pathological condition as rickets, as well as infectious diseases such as diphtheria, hepatitis, scarlet fever or measles.Affect the occurrence of myopia and other related diseases (eg, diabetes mellitus or adenoids, etc.), plus disturbances in the locomotor system (eg, scoliosis and flat feet).
Symptoms of children's myopia.
Before we talk about how to treat myopia in children, its main manifestations should be considered.
When myopia eye visible image of objects does not focus on the retina itself, and in front of her.At the same time those items that are located close to the child sees well, and remote - is worse.
However, children do not always understand what they see is bad, which is why do not complain, and the disease may go unnoticed certain time.
One of the first signs of myopia in children are as follows: under the supervision of the child can be seen that he squints and frowns, frequent blinking and stretches the outer corners of the eyes.Children with myopia tend to browse the TV at a distance closer, bring toys close to the eyes and tilted his head low when reading or drawing.
If the classroom a child sitting at a desk far, it is likely that he may fall performance due to the fact that it is difficult to look at the inscription on the board.
In myopia the eye in children is characterized by the appearance of such complaints as well as the discomfort and pain in the eyes, pain in the head, rapid eye fatigue.
must be remembered that in the case of late 'corrected myopia in a child can happen violation of binocular vision may develop exotropia or amblyopia occur.However, the most adverse complications of myopia are vitreous detachment, as well as contribute to hemorrhage and retinal detachment changes.
Treatment of childhood myopia
Probably every parent whose child faced with the problem of myopia, interested in the question: if a child has myopia, what to do?In fact the correct answer to this question - seek medical advice for the selection of correction and treatment.
Treatment of myopia in children is directly dependent on the degree of the disease, its progression, and the presence of complications.
Immediately it should be noted that to completely cure the disease in children can not.The most important tasks, highlights during therapy, in this case is if the failure to stop, or at least slow the progression of the disease, as well as vision correction.This also applies to the prevention of complications.
Particular attention should be paid to the progressive form of nearsightedness in children.If it is permissible increase myopia not more than 0.5 diopters per year.The timely start of treatment in this case depends on the number of chances of saving vision.The sooner treatment is started, and the chance of more respectively.
The treatment of myopia in children all methods should be used in combination.This allows us to achieve the best results.
So with the use of drugs, and in the case of a high degree of progression of the disease or surgical procedures combine physiotherapy ways to deal with this disease, as well as optical exercises.
How to treat myopia in children: the correction of myopia low, medium and high level at the child
It all starts with the fact that the ophthalmologist makes the selection of glasses.That's what made the correction of myopia in children.At its core, it is not a cure, however, in this disease glasses slightly reduce its progression, due to the fact that with their help decrease eye strain.Consequently the diagnosis of congenital forms of myopia glasses should be administered as soon as possible.
Moreover, for the correction of mild to moderate disease is no need to wear glasses, they are assigned only to give.And if a child feels quite comfortable without glasses, then forcing him to wear them is not necessary.True it concerns mainly low degree of illness.
If the child has a high degree of myopia, or he suffers from a progressive form of the disease, in this case, we recommend the constant wearing of glasses.This is particularly important when children appear exotropia: allows you to prevent amblyopia.
It should be noted that when myopia is necessary to conduct timely shift points, because excessive tension of accommodation only enhances the progression of the disease.Also points older children can use contact lenses.Their urgency is especially great in the case of anisometropia - a big difference of refraction between the eyes (more than 2 diopters).
There is the so-called orthokeratology method, the essence of which is the use of special lenses that can change the shape of the cornea by flattening it.However, this effect lasts only for 1-2 days, at the coming of which the shape of the cornea is reduced.
When mild myopia in children can also appoint a "relaxing" glasses.Their low positive lens promotes relaxation of accommodation.In addition, in the arsenal of available physicians and special computer programs, leading to a relaxation of accommodation.Such programs can also be used in the home environment. very good effect and provide training ciliary muscle, which is carried out at a present to the eye alternately positive and negative lenses.
Medics also developed such points as the laser-Vision, is somewhat improved distance vision, roughly as in squinting, but they do not have a therapeutic effect.
How to cure myopia in children vitamins and medicines treatment of childhood myopia possible and using medicinal drugs prescribed along with non-drug therapies.
In the case where there is a poor level of disease, it is advisable to assign a complex of vitamins and minerals, especially those that contain lutein.
I must say that for children with myopia vitamins are important becauseprevent further progression of the disease and the appearance of complications. also possible appointment trental and calcium supplements.A dystrophy using medications that improve blood circulation in the retina.These medicines include emoksipin, menadione, Dicynonum et al.
It is necessary to draw attention to the fact that we should not prescribe vasodilators, if there is bleeding.
If pathological lesions are formed, then apply absorbable preparations (for example, fibrinolizin or lidasa).
Surgical treatment of progressive myopia in children
With the development of complications, as well as the treatment of progressive myopia in children, is usually applied a method of surgical treatment as a scleroplasty.
indications for its implementation is not fast enough and corrective exacerbated (& gt; 1 diopters per year) myopia in heavy increase in anteroposterior size of the optic apple and the absence of any complications from the fundus.
The essence of this operation is to improve blood circulation and strengthen the posterior pole of the eye, which is necessary in order to prevent further stretching of the sclera.
There are two ways perform these purposes, either to the posterior pole hem graft eye or through injection liquid for it to enter the crushed tissue in a slurry.As the transplant can be a sclera obtained from the donor, as well as materials such as collagen or silicone.However, such intervention makes the patient healthy, but only helps to reduce the progression and improve the blood supply to the structures of the organ of vision.
In deciding how to treat myopia in children, we should not forget the opportunities of laser surgery, which in our time is used widely enough.
This method in this disease is particularly effective as a warning appearance of tears and retinal detachment in the event of a rapid progression of the disease.During the operation, carried out a kind of "soldering" of the retina, which is produced as around the existing gaps, as well as in those places where it is thinned.
What to do when a child myopia: non-pharmacological treatment
Narrating about how to stop myopia in a child, it is worth to mention the non-drug treatment.
Regarding any kind of myopia, this method involves balancing food, fresh air, compliance visual load mode and restorative regime, swimming classes, as well as eye exercises.
At moderate myopia in children, as well as a high degree of short-sightedness makes sense to visit specialized kindergarten.
order to detect as early as possible and prevent further development of myopia children who are at risk for developing the disease, should be subject to periodic examinations by an ophthalmologist.And with already developed nearsightedness should visit an ophthalmologist every six months.
GVM uses specialty equipment and techniques to comprehensively evaluate the refractive errors (i.e. myopia) and the ocular size and shape of our patients' eyes. These measurements along with myopia progression history are used to determine an optimum management strategy, which may include the fitting of specialty contact lenses and glasses shown in recent research to be highly effective in controlling myopia progression.