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Peripheral nerve ultrasound

Is a modern research method used for diagnostics of diseases and pathological conditions of the peripheral nervous system. Today, this procedure is included in the list of mandatory manipulations that are performed in cases of suspected compression or damage of the nerve trunks.

Previous methods of peripheral nervous system study, such as electromyography, are illustrative of functional activity of the nerve trunk, which is insufficient to resolve the issues of effective nerve endings diseases treatment. Ultrasound allows to study the nerves anatomy, which is a huge advantage of this diagnostic procedure.

Nerves to be investigated

  • The ulnar nerve.
  • The radial nerve.
  • Median nerve.
  • Common peroneal nerve.
  • Common tibial nerve.
  • The sciatic nerve.

Parameters defined during the test

  • Thickness of the nerve trunk.
  • Cross-section form.
  • The outline of the nerve in longitudinal and cross sections.
  • Structure of nerve fibers.
  • The presence of abnormalities.
  • Pain in the projection of the nerve trunks, which, as a rule, is lumbago.
  • Disturbance of sensation in the area of innervation of specific nerves.
  • Paresthesia: tingling, feeling of "pins and needles" in the upper or lower extremities.
  • Impaired motor activity in one part of the body.
  • Palpation of pathological formations in the projection of the major nerves.
  • Traumatic injuries of the nerve trunks area.

Ultrasound examination of the peripheral nervous system is carried out without special preparation. The procedure is performed, as a rule, in the supine body position.  Patient may be asked to change the position of the limb for visualization of certain anatomical structures 

  • Neuropathy is the disease of the nervous system in which there is a disturbance in the function of a nerve or particular group of nerves. The three major forms of nerve damage are: peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy. The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which mainly affects the feet and legs.
  • Sciatica is pain, tingling, or numbness produced by an irritation of the sciatic nerve. Sciatica is a pain in the leg due to irritation of the sciatic nerve. Sciatica most commonly occurs when a branch of the sciatic nerve is compressed at the base of the spine.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when tendons in the wrist become inflamed after being aggravated. Tendons can become aggravated when the carpals (a tunnel of bones) and the ligaments in the wrist narrow, pinching nerves that reach the fingers and the muscle at the base of the thumb.
  • Polyneuropathy is any illness that attacks numerous nerves in the body, sometimes causing weakness and/or pain. It tends to be a systemic problem that affects more than one nerve group at a time. Polyneuropathies are relatively symmetric, often affecting sensory, motor, and vasomotor fibers simultaneously.
  • Diabetic neuropathies are neuropathic disorders that are associated with diabetes mellitus. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum).
  • Autonomic neuropathy is a group of symptoms caused by damage to nerves supplying the internal body structures that regulate functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, bowel and bladder emptying, and digestion.
  • Postherpetic neuralgia is pain that persists after an episode of shingles (herpes zoster) has resolved, resulting from damaged nerve fibers from the shingles.
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome is a condition in which the nerves or vessels behind the collar bone (clavicle) become compressed or stretched, causing pain, weakness, or numbness in the arm on the same side. The thoracic outlet is an area at the top of the rib cage, between the neck and the chest. Several anatomical structures pass through this area, including the esophagus, trachea, and nerves and blood vessels that lead to the arm and neck region.

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